8th Grade Lab Science (Cribb & Duane)
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Background:  Organic compounds refer to a class of compounds that are important to living things.  These compounds are either produced by a living thing or derive from a thing that was once living, but is now dead.  The word "organic" means, "coming from life", and it is because of this, that organic compounds are very important to living things.  Coral (the rock not the organism), petroleum (oil), and alcohol are all created by living things and are made up of organic compounds.  You will focus on types of organic compounds that are found in living things.  These compounds are also called biological compounds or nutrients.

 

Objectives:

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tell the functions, building blocks, and elements of basic organic (biological) compounds (carbohydrate, protein, lipids)

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give specific examples of each type of organic compound

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 recognize the correct chemical indicator for each organic compound

bulletinterpret results of chemical tests and determine if they are positive or negative

 

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Summary of Indicators and Substances:

Indicators Used Substances Tested
Biuret Solution protein solution (gelatin)
Benedict's Solution monosaccharide (glucose)
TesTape monosaccharide (glucose)
Benedict's Solution & TesTape disaccharide (sucrose)
Iodine Solution polysaccharide (starch)
Sudan IV lipid solution (cooking oil)
Potassium Permanganate & Manganese Sulfate 1. citric acid

2. ascorbic acid

lime water carbon dioxide
Acid (HCl) calcium carbonate 

 

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Handouts:

Homeworks and Graphic Organizers diagrams & powerpoints text
comparison chart (nutrients)

nutrients: spider map

graphic organizer: organic compounds

Slide show: Structure of Organic Compounds organic compound reading
 

 

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Lab Activities:

Using Indicators to Identify Organic Compounds

Chemical Testing of Carbohydrates

 

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Organic Compound On-Line References:

 

Proteins

http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/lm/proteins/aa/aminoacids.html    This site from MIT contains diagrams and information about the structure of amino acids.

http://www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/P/Proteins.html    This site from Ultranet.com defines proteins, tells functions, and contains diagrams.

http://worldbook.bigchalk.com/448460.htm    Protein.  This site from World Book in Big Chalk.com contains information about Proteins.

http://worldbook.bigchalk.com/018720.htm    Amino acids.  This site from World Book in Big Chalk.com contains information about amino acids.

 

Lipids

http://worldbook.bigchalk.com/325790.htm    Lipids.  This site from World Book in Big Chalk.com contains information about lipids

 

Carbohydrates

http://worldbook.bigchalk.com/094420.htm    Carbohydrates. This site from World Book in Big Chalk.com contains information about carbohydrates.

http://www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/C/Carbohydrates.html    This site from ultranet,com contains basic information about carbohydrates.  It also contains molecular diagrams and examples of monosaccarides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides (starches).

http://www.wellness.gatech.edu/nutrition/carbs.htm    This site from Georgia Tech University defines carbohydrates and discusses their importance for nutrition.

http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/lm/sugars/sugars.html    This site from MIT contains complex information about the structure of sugars.  The diagrams in this site may be useful.

Other Organic Compounds

http://worldbook.bigchalk.com/011580.htm    Alcohol.   This site from World Book in Big Chalk.com contains information about alcohol.

http://worldbook.bigchalk.com/268820.htm    Hydrocarbons. This site from World Book in Big Chalk.com contains information about hydrocarbons.