9TH GRADE BIOLOGY (Mr. Duane's Class)
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April 08, 2010

SUA SPONTE

Preface: This Chapter in the Fenn Journal of Science contains lab report papers completed by 9th grade students in Nov, 2004.  The overall objective of these experiments was to determine the ideal conditions for cell respiration - either aerobic respiration or fermentation to occur.  In other words, under what conditions is the most amount of energy converted to ATP by cells.  Each experiment tests how specific variables effect the rate of either aerobic respiration or fermentation in living things.  The variables tested include availability of oxygen, sugar source, and temperature.

 

Assignment: Each individual will be responsible to review each group's results and findings and write a conclusion that summarizes all five experiments.  For this task, you must discuss what are the ideal conditions for cell respiration (convert the optimal amount of energy) to occur.  The variables that you will discuss include: sugar type, temperature, and availability of oxygen.

 

Table of Contents:

 

The Affect of Sugar Types on the Fermentation of Yeast

by Andrew Richardson, Spencer Lovejoy and John McBride

 

How Different Sugar Types Affect the Fermentation of Yeast

by Ben Kitendaugh and Malcolm Eaton

 

The Affect of the Temperature of Yeast on its Rate of Respiration

By Mason Watson and Trip Smith

 

How Temperature Affects the Fermentation of Yeast

By Tom Robbins and Jimmy Geraghty 

 

The Affect of Different Sugar Types on the Rate of Respiration

By Chris Woo, Peter Valhouli-Farb, and Joe Shapiro

 

THE EFFECT OF SUGAR TYPE ON RESPIRATION OF YEAST

By David Oxnard, Marc Buckland, and Kit Howland

 

The Affect of Different Sugars on the Rate of Respiration

By Kyle Sargis and Ben Sokol

 

The Affect of Temperature on the Respiration

by Cam Baggen, Nick Foley, and Pat Mara

 

 

 

Lab Station

Tuesday Class Friday Class 
#2 Cell Respiration in Peas NONE NONE
#1 Fermentaion of Yeast (Temperature) Jimmy & Tom Mason & Trip
#3 Fermentation of Yeast (Sugar Type) Pat W & Nico Ben & Malcolm

Spencer, John, & Andrew

#5 Respiration of Yeast (Temperature) Pat M, Nick, & Cam Krish & Will
#4 Respiration of Yeast (Sugar Type) Marc, Kit, & Dave

Kyle & Ben

Peter, Joe, & Woozy

 

 

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  The Affect of Sugar Types on the Fermentation of Yeast

Andrew Richardson, Spencer Lovejoy and John McBride

 

Introduction

            Yeast is a single celled organism that is used to make dough rise and ferment alcoholic drinks like beer and wine. When you smell bread you mostly smell the scent of the yeast. There are hundreds of species of yeast but only a few of these are used commercially. Yeasts belong to a group of simple organisms known as fungi, which exist almost everywhere in nature. Yeasts reproduce rapidly, and they grow especially well in substances containing sugar. Depending of the type of sugar the yeast ferments with the outcome will be different types of alcohol. Maltose comes from grains and is used with yeast to make beer. Fructose comes from fruits and with yeast makes wine. Sucrose from sugar cane, rum and lactose which comes from milk, nothing. Glucose is the simplest sugar and in our testing we used it as a control.

            Cell respiration is the process of converting different forms of energy to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a form that living things can use.  There are two types of cellular respiration, aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic respiration requires the presence of oxygen, anaerobic respiration, or fermentation, does not. We were observing alcoholic fermentation which is anaerobic and does need oxygen. In fact it doesnt work with oxygen so we needed to keep it out. A simple equation for anaerobic respiration is glucose alcohol + carbon dioxide. In the part enzymes release ATP, energy that the living thing can use.

            In our experiment we tested the fermentation of yeast with five different types of sugars. We tested fructose, sucrose, lactose, maltose and glucose as a control. We are trying to find out which type of sugar will ferment with yeast and produce the most CO2.

            We are doing this to figure out which sugar gives the living thing (the yeast) the most energy. We will measure the CO2 in kpa/ second, pressure over time. I think that sucrose will produce the most CO2 because it is a complex sugar that is the most sugar like, unlike the other sugars which have grain and fruit roots.

 

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

 

IV: Sugar type

 

 

Glucose

 

Sucrose

 

 

Lactose

 

Fructose

 

1 trial

 

 

1 trial

 

1 trial

 

1 trial

 

DV: The rate of fermentation

 

Constants:

        Water temperature between 37-40 C in beaker

        Amount of water in beaker, 15 mL

        Length of experiment

        Dialysis tubes distance from the probe

 

PROCEDURE

Figure 2

1.  Set up lab station.  Figures 1+2

2.  Turn on the calculator and start the DATAMATE      program. Set up the calculator

 

3.   Fill the beaker with 15 ml of water.  Keep temperature in beaker not between 37-40 C.  If the temperature is below 37C put on hotplate on low.  And if the temperature is above 40C add cold water until correct temperature is reached.  

4.   Take two test tubes and label them 1 and 2.

Figure 3

5.   You will test the five sugar solutions; glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, and maltose.  Using a graduated cylinder place 2.5 mL of the sugar solution into the test tube and label it test tube 1.

6.   Obtain the yeast and add it to the tube along with the sugar. Gently mix the yeast the solution to keep it from settling on the bottom of the test tube.  Then use a graduated cylinder to transfer the yeast into test tube 1 with the sugar. 

7.   In the test tube, place enough vegetable oil to cover the entire surface.  Be careful to not get oil on the inside wall of the test tube. Set the test tube in the water bath.  Figure 3

   8.   Put test tube 1 into the beaker filled with 15 mL of water in order to incubate.  Do this for ten minutes and make sure that the temperature remains constant at 37-40 degrees.

 

Figure 4

   9.   When incubation period is done, connect the free-end of the tubing to the connector in the stopper.  Figure 4

10.   Select START to begin data collection. Maintain the temperature of the water bath during the course of the experiment.

11.   The collection of data will end after 15 minutes of taking readings.

12.   When data collection has finished, a graph will appear on the screen automatically.

13.   Repeat steps 1-12 for each different variable of sugar.

 

 

 

Figure 1

 

 

RESULTS

         

Observations: Lactose wasnt very interesting, we think because its dairy based. The initial pressure for all of the sugar types was pretty consistent.

 

Data table #1: group data

Sugar type

Initial Pressure

Initial time

 

 

Final pressure

 

Final time

 

Slope

DP / DT

 

Maltose

 

 

106.88

 

0

 

113.48

 

300

 

.0216

 

Glucose

 

 

106.58

 

0

 

111.28

 

300

 

 

.0157

 

Sucrose

 

 

106.32

 

0

 

116.78

 

300

 

.0348

 

Lactose

 

 

106

 

0

 

107

 

300

 

.0033

 

Fructose

 

105.51

 

0

 

108.73

 

300

 

.0107

 

Data table #1: class data in (units)

Glucose 1st level of IV

Sucrose 2nd level of IV

Lactose 3rd level of IV

Fructose 4th level of IV

Maltose 5th level of IV

0.157

.0348

.0033

.0107

.0216

0.167

.0255

.006

.006

.0422

 

 

 

Conclusion

            The purpose of this experiment was to determine which sugar type would ferment with yeast to produce the most CO2. Essentially we figured out which sugars would produce the most alcohol when combined with yeast and no oxygen. Sucrose, a complex sugar made up of two glucose molecules produced the most CO2 with .0348 kpa/second. I think that sucrose did the best because of what I said in my hypothesis: sucrose is the most sugar like of the complex sugars. The other sugars are from different places like grains, fruits and milk, not straight up sugar like sucrose and glucose. Sucrose did better than glucose because glucose is the simplest sugar and was there more as a control. My hypothesis: I think that sucrose will produce the most CO2 because it is a complex sugar that is the most sugar like, unlike the other sugars which have grain and fruit roots. was supported by the data.

            For further studies and the improvement of this experiment we could have done multiple tests for longer periods of time. Results may have been more accurate if the yeast had fermented longer with the different sugars. For further studies we could have tested different types of yeast, not just one and perhaps used a combination of sugars. If we wanted 100% accurate results we could have kept the temperature constant at a single temperature, not in the range we used. So instead of 37-40 degrees we would have just kept it at 37, 38, 39 or 40.

 

 

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How Different Sugar Types Affect the Fermentation of Yeast

Ben Kitendaugh

Malcolm Eaton

11/14/04

 

Introduction

            Yeast is an organism used to make bread rise, but it is also used to makes beer and wine.  In the experiment, we will see how different sugar types affect the Fermentation of yeast.  We will be testing for five different types of sugars: Glucose, Lactose, Fructose, Sucrose, and Maltose.  Our hypothesis is that Glucose will produce the most CO2 because it is the most commonly used simple sugar.

          Fermentation (anaerobic respiration) occurs when chemicals react with each other, without the use of oxygen, to produce living energy.  Aerobic Respiration occurs when chemicals react with each other, with the use of oxygen, to produce living energy.  The three stages of aerobic respiration are glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.  The steps for Anaerobic Respiration are glycolysis and fermentation.  And example of Aerobic Respiration is C6H12O6+O2+enzymesATP releasedCO2+H2O. An example of Anaerobic Respiration is C6H12O6+enzymesATP releasedC2H5O+CO2.  These equations produce different amounts of ATP, the immediate energy source.  Thirty-six ATP are produced in aerobic respiration, while only two ATP are produced in Fermentation.

 

Experimental Design

IV: Sugar Type

Glucose (Control)

Sucrose

Fructose

Lactose

Maltose

2

2

2

2

2

DV: Amount of CO2 Produced

Constants:

bulletTemperature (37-40)
bulletAmount of Oil (5 drops)
bulletAmount of Yeast (2.5 mL)
bulletAmount of Sugar (2.5 mL)
bulletRate of Fermentation (KPA/S)

 

Procedure

1.       Set up the CBL to calculate KPA/S.

2.     Set up a test tube.

bulletPut 2.5 mL of yeast into tube.
bulletPut 2.5 mL of sugar into tube.
bulletStir the liquids together.
bulletAdd 5 drops of oil to the tube.

3. Set up a beaker with 37-40 Celsius water.

4. Put the stopper securely in the test tube.

5. Place the test tube into the beaker.

6. Start recording the data by pressing the number 2 on the calculator.

7. Shake the test tube consistently.

8. Record the readings every ten seconds.

9. Download the data onto graphical analysis.

10. Repeat steps 1-9 with different sugars.

Finished Experiment:

 

Results

Observations: Slight bubbling

Group #3 Data

Sugar Type

Initial Pressure

Initial Time

Final Pressure

Final Time

Rate of Fermentation (KPA/S)

Glucose

109.672

480

115.174

810

.0167

Sucrose

108.733

0

116.381

300

.0255

Lactose

112.088

40

112.758

160

.006

Fructose

111.685

40

113.161

300

.006

Maltose

105.64

0

117.455

280

.0422

 

Class Data in KPA/S

 

Glucose

Sucrose

Lactose

Fructose

Maltose

Group # 2

.0157

.0348

.0033

.0107

 

Group # 3

.0167

.0225

.006

.006

.0422

 

Class Statistics in KPA/S

 

Glucose

Sucrose

Lactose

Fructose

Maltose

Mean

.0162

.03015

.0045

.00835

.0442

Median

.0162

.03015

.0045

.00835

.0442

Range

.001

.0093

.0027

.0047

.0

Maximum

.0167

.0348

.006

.0107

.0442

Minimum

.0157

.0225

.0033

.006

.0442

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

          The original purpose of our experiment was to find out which sugar combined with yeast helped to produce the greatest amount of CO2.  The sugar that produced the most Co2 was Maltose.  This data did not support our original hypothesis of Glucose.  Maltose had a rate of fermentation of .0422 KPA/S.  We got this result because Maltose is a complex sugar.  Maltose is also the sugar used to make beer and wine.

          Glucose had a rate of .0167 KPA/S, Sucrose was .0255 KPA/S, Lactose was .006 KPA/S, and Fructose was also .006 KPA/S.  This was the only experiment that we have conducted where we have not wanted to make any changes.  The experiment was well thought out and we were given a sufficient amount of time to complete the lab.

 

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Pat W & Nico

 

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The Affect of the Temperature of Yeast on its Rate of Respiration

By Mason Watson and Trip Smith

11-14-04

 

INTRODUCTION:

          Cellular Respiration is the chemical process in which the mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP. There are three stages of cellular respiration; glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. The two main types of cell respiration are aerobic and anaerobic (fermentation) respiration. Aerobic respiration is different from anaerobic in one critical aspect: aerobic respiration requires oxygen. This variation affects other factors as well, such as the amount of ATP produced (which is higher in aerobic respiration). The equation for aerobic respiration is: C6 H12 O6 + 02 Energy Released CO2 +H2O, the equation for fermentation is C6 H12 O6 Energy Released C3 H6 O3 or C02 + Alcohol.

            The purpose of this experiment is to discover at which temperature the rate of respiration is most efficient in yeast. The reason yeast was chosen for this experiment is because yeast, when mixed with sugar, will ferment, creating ethyl alcohol and releasing energy in the form of ATP. The method that will be used to measure the rate of respiration is gas pressure, which will be measured by a Gas Pressure Sensor (connected to the CBL). Gas pressure is a reliable way to measure the rate of respiration because during fermentation carbon dioxide is released, creating gas pressure.

            We are conducting the experiment to figure out what the optimal temperature is for yeast to convert glucose into carbon dioxide and alcohol. We are testing six different temperatures. They are: 19C (Room Temperature), 0-10C, 20C, 37-42C, 55-62C.

            My hypothesis is that the rate of respiration will be higher in the 55-62C temperature range. The reason for this is that energy tends to be given off in greater quantities depending on the amount of heat (fire being an excellent example). There is no reason to believe that this would be different with fermentation.

           

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

 

IV: Temperature of Yeast

0-10C

 

 

 

1 Trial

20C

 

 

 

1 Trial

37-42C

 

 

 

1 Trial

55-62C

 

 

 

1 Trial

DV: Rate of Respiration of Yeast

Constants: Pressure probe, hot plate, amount of oil, amount of yeast, amount of glucose.

 

PROCEDURE

1. Gather the necessary materials.

 

Hot Water Bath

 

Pressure Probe

 
2. Set up the apparatus as shown.

3. Set up the CBL.

4. Create a hot water bath.

5. Pour 2.5mL Glucose into the test tube.

6. Pour 2.5mL Yeast into the test tube.

7. Add enough drops of oil to cover the top of the solution.

8. Record the initial pressure.

 

Test Tube with Solution

 
9. Place pressure probe stopper on top of test tube.

10. Start the experiment.

11. Lightly shake the test tube throughout experiment.

12. Monitor the temperature of the hot water bath throughout the experiment.

13. Repeat experiment for each temperature.

14. Graph Results.

 

RESULTS

         

Observations: Condensation appeared on the inside of the test tube. Steam also appeared in the 55-62 temperature range.

 

Data table # 1: Group Data

Temperature

(C)

Initial Pressure

(kPa)

Initial time

(Seconds)

 

Final Pressure

(kPa)

Final time

(Seconds)

Slope

ΔP/ΔT

 

0-10

 

104

0

104.3

300

.000375

 

20

 

107

0

109.76

300

.0108

 

37-42

 

103

0

121.2

900*

.0201

 

55-62

 

108

0

114.1

300

.0222

* This experiment ran three times as long as the other three.




 

CONCLUSION

         

          The purpose of this experiment was to find out at which temperature yeast produced the greatest amount of carbon dioxide. We found that the temperature level which produced the most carbon dioxide was 55-62C. This amount was 6.1 kPa/s. For the 0-10C temperature level, the pressure was .3 kPa/s, for the 20C temperature level, it was 2.76 kPa/s, and for the 37-42C temperature level, it was 18.2 kPa/s*.

            Our hypothesis was supported by the data because the 55-62C temperature level produced the most amount of carbon dioxide, which was 6.1 kPa/s. These findings can be explained because they use the same principle that fire does, which is that the hotter the fire is, the more pressure and energy is released.

            This experiment was performed adequately with the instruments at hand, yet it seemed that the results were slightly inaccurate. We believe that by increasing the time for each trial, that we would come to a more satisfactory conclusion. In order to complete this we would have needed more total lab time for experimentation.

*This was over a 900 second time period.

 

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How Temperature Affects the Fermentation of Yeast

By Tom Robbins and Jimmy Geraghty

 

INTRODUCTION:

         

Yeast is a single celled living organism that is classified as a fungus. Cell respiration is the process where cells break down food into ATP. Aerobic respiration produces 36 ATP while anaerobic respiration (fermentation) only gives off 2 ATP. A sample equation for Aerobic respiration is O2+C6H12O6= CO2+H2O and 36 ATP. The equation for anaerobic respiration is C6H12O= C2H5OH+CO2 and 2 ATP. We are doing this experiment to find out how different temperatures effect the fermentation of yeast. The variables we are testing are cold water (0-10 degrees), room temperature (18-25 degrees), and lukewarm water (37-42 degrees).  I believe that the 37-42 degree range will yield the most C02. I believe this is because heat will cause the biggest reaction. 

         

 

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

 

IV: Temperature Range

 

 

0-10 (C)

(Cold)

 

1 Trial

 

 

 

 

 

 

18-25 (C)

(Room)  

 

1 Trial

 

 

 

 

37-42 (C)

(Lukewarm)

 

1 Trial

 

 

DV: Rate of Fermentation

 

Constants:  

                                                 Amount of Yeast (2.5 mL)

                           Concentration and type of sugar (2.5 mL of glucose)

                         Amount of Oxygen (None)

-          amount of water

-          same pressure

-          amount of oil

-          amount of water

-          same sugar

-          same length of trials

 

PROCEDURE

 

1.     Fill a test tube with 2.5 ml of yeast and 2.5 of glucose

2.     Top it off with a layer of oil to keep out oxygen.

3.     Prepare the CBL and make sure all cords are connected.

4.     Put the stopper on the test tube. And start the recording process.

5.     Make sure the water temperature stays at the correct temperature.

6.     Once your set up is ready start the recording process. (15 Minutes)

7.     During the recording, gently shake the tube to keep the CO2 flowing.

8.     Once the calculator is done recording then download the data into Graphical Analysis.

9.     Print out the graphs.

10. Repeat this process three times.

 

RESULTS

         

Observations: Record written observations in this space.

Data table # (number): group data

 

Temperature

Initial Pressure

Initial time

 

 

Final pressure

 

Final time

 

Slope

DP / DT

 

35-40

 

108

0 sec

132

900 sec

.02 Kpa/Sec

18-25

 

105

0 sec

115

900 sec

.01 Kpa/Sec

0-10

 

102

0 sec

102.7

300 sec

.002 Kpa/Sec

 

 

 

 
Graph

 

Amount of rmentation

 
        

 

CONCLUSION

         

The purpose of this experiment is to see how different temperatures of water effect the fermentation of yeast.  The temperature that causes the most fermentation is 35-40 degrees Celsius. The heat of the water is what caused the most fermentation.  The data that we recorded did support our hypothesis. We thought that the Luke-warm water would cause the most fermentation.  If I were to do this experiment again I would have a bunch of shorter trials as apposed to the one long trial that we performed.

 

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The Affect of Different Sugar Types on the Rate of Respiration

By Chris Woo, Peter Valhouli-Farb, and Joe Shapiro

 

INTRODUCTION:

Yeast are single-celled organisms. Bakers must put yeast in their dough in order for it to rise. Yeasts are part of a group of simple organisms called fungi. Fungi exist nearly everywhere in nature, including the air. Yeast reproduce speedily, and grow particularly well in substances containing sugar. Yeast depend on other sources for food. They feed on sugar from a variety of natural sources. Yeast cells produce chemicals called enzymes, or ferments, which break down their food.

When yeast carry out cell respiration, oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced. Yeast must carry out cell respiration to survive. Cell respiration is the chemical process where mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP; the three stages of cell respiration are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and the electron transport chain. In this experiment, the yeast cells are breaking down sugars to produce ATP. The difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration (fermentation) is that aerobic respiration requires oxygen, whereas anaerobic does not. The equation for aerobic respiration (an exothermic chemical reaction) is: glucose + oxygen-----carbon dioxide + water. The equation for fermentation is glucose-----carbon dioxide + alcohol.

The four sugars that are to be tested are glucose (blood sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and sucrose (table sugar). Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides, whereas lactose and sucrose are disaccharides. The purpose of this experiment to learn and observe the affect of different sugar types on the rate of respiration. The yeast simulates an organism breaking down food (sugar) into glucose and then using it to carry out respiration. The rationale for this experiment is to further learn about fermentation and respiration and of their importance to all organisms. We believe that glucose will have the highest rate of respiration because it is the simplest sugar and the one used for respiration in the body (glucose is blood sugar).   

 

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

 

IV: Sugar Type

 

Glucose

Sucrose

Fructose

Lactose

Maltose

1

1

1

1

1

 

DV: Rate of respiration/production of CO2 (ppm)

 

Constants:

        Temperature of water in bath (37-40C)

        Amount of water in beaker (300mL-400mL)

        Amount of sugar solution in test tube (2 mL)

        Amount of yeast added (2 mL)

        Length of incubation (10 minutes)

        Time in respiration chamber (5 minutes)

 

 

PROCEDURE

1.         Chris prepares a water bath for the yeast. He combines warm and cool water into the 600-mL beaker until it reaches 38 40C.He fills the beaker with about 300 400 mL of water2.

2.         Joey obtains a test tube.

3.         Joey obtains one of the four sugar solutions (glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose).

4.         Joey obtains the yeast suspension and gently swirls the yeast suspension to mix the yeast that settles to the bottom. He puts 2 mL of yeast into the test tube. He gently swirls the test tube to mix the yeast into the sugar solution.

5.         Joey sets the test tube into the water bath.

6.         The test tube incubates for 10 minutes in the water bath. While the test tubes are incubating, proceed to Step 7.

7.         Peter plugs the CO2 Gas Sensor into Channel 1 of the LabPro or CBL 2 interface. He uses the link cable to connect the TI Graphing Calculator to the interface. He firmly presses in the cable ends.

8.         Peter sets up the calculator and interface for a CO2 Gas Sensor.

9.         When incubation is finished, Chris uses a beral pipet to place 2 mL of the sugar/yeast solution into the 250-mL respiration chamber.

10.       Chris places the shaft of the CO2 Gas Sensor in the opening of the respiration chamber.

11.       Peter waits one minute, then selects START to begin data collection. Data will be collected for 5 minutes.

12.       Repeat Steps 1 11 for each of the other three sugar solutions.

 

 

 

RESULTS

         

Observations: The respiration was not visible. However, we did see the respiration chamber fog up during the experiment.  

Data table: Group 4 data

 

Sugar type

Initial Amount (ppm) CO2

Initial time

 

Final Amount (ppm) CO2

Final time

 

Slope

DP / DT

(ppm/s)

Glucose

958

0

4300

300

11.14

Lactose

920

0

2170

300

4.17

Sucrose

850

0

2023

300

3.91

Fructose

694

0

2747

300

6.84

Maltose

420

0

3675

300

10.85

 

Graphs

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

         

The purpose of this experiment to learn and observe the affect of different sugar types on the rate of respiration. The yeast simulates an organism breaking down food (sugar) into glucose and then using it to carry out respiration. The rationale for this experiment is to further learn about fermentation and respiration and of their importance to all organisms. Glucose produced the most amount of CO2; with a rate of respiration of 11.14 ppm/s. Closely followed by glucose was maltose, with a rate of 10.85 ppm/s. Following maltose was fructose (6.84 ppm/s), lactose (4.17 ppm/s) and then sucrose (3.91 ppm/s). This is because glucose, fructose, and maltose are all monosaccharides (the simplest form of sugar).  Lactose and sucrose are both disaccharides.  Thus, monosaccharides are more easily broken down than disaccharides.  Because glucose, fructose and maltose (monosaccharides) are easier to break down than lactose and sucrose (disaccharides), more CO2 was released at a quicker rate. Glucose had the highest rate of respiration of all the monosaccharides because it is the simplest sugar of the monosaccharides. Furthermore, it is the sugar that is used for respiration in the body. We believed that glucose would have the highest rate of respiration because it is the simplest sugar and the one used for respiration in the body (glucose is blood sugar). Our hypothesis was supported by the findings. To make this experiment better, the groups could run more tests for each sugar.  Since there was a very large margin for error, more tests would eliminate possible outliers.  

 

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THE EFFECT OF SUGAR TYPE ON RESPIRATION OF YEAST

By David Oxnard, Marc Buckland, and Kit Howland

 

INTRODUCTION:

Sugar is a prime energy source for all living organisms.  It supplies organisms with one of the reactants for respiration.  A monosaccaride is a simple sugar that is made up of six carbon molecules.  Glucose, fructose, and galactose are examples of this.  Disaccarides are double sugars (two combined simple sugars).  Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are disaccarides.  Enzymes are specific proteins that act as catalysts for certain chemical reactions.  Each reaction can be performed by a different type of enzyme, and each enzyme is only keyed to one reaction.  Yeast is fungus that uses basic sugars to create energy for itself. Cell respiration is when a cell uses a reactant(s) to make energy for itself and then discards what it cant use. Aerobic respiration is different from anaerobic respiration however. Aerobic respiration uses carbon dioxide as well as glucose, as where anaerobic respiration uses simply glucose as a reactant. Aerobic Respiration produces thirty six ATP per glucose molecule, as fermentation makes only two ATP per molecule. For aerobic respiration, most of it takes place in the mitochondria, while fermentation takes place in the cytoplasm. Glycolysis occurs for both forms of respiration, but aerobic respiration includes Krebs cycle and Electron Transport Chain, while fermentation includes only fermentation after glycolysis.  O2 + C6H12O6 CO2 + H2O is the equation for aerobic respiration.  This is what yeast (and all other fungi) does to convert food to energy.

In this experiment, we will test the yeasts rate of respiration when it is exposed to different sugars.  To do this, we will measure the CO2 released by the yeast while it is respirating.  This is possible because CO2 is a resulting waste from the reaction.

  We believe that glucose will provide the highest rate of respiration because the yeast will not have to waste energy converting the sugar into the simplest sugar, glucose.

 

 

IV: Type of sugar used

 

Glucose

Fructose

Lactose

Sucrose

Maltose

1

1

1

1

1

 

DV: Rate of respiration

 

Constants:

 

Temperature of water bath (37-40 degrees)

Amount of sugar solution (2 ml)

Amount of yeast solution (2 ml)

Size of respiration chamber

Concentration of sugar in sugar solution

Concentration of yeast in yeast solution

 

 

PROCEDURE

 

1.      Set up CBL to measure CO2

2.      Mix 2 ml of yeast solution with 2 ml of varying sugar solutions

3.      Place yeast/sugar solution in respiration chamber

4.      Maintain a constant temperature between 37-40

5.      Measure CO2 change for 5 minutes

6.      Download information from CBL and set up for next trial

 

RESULTS

         

Observations: Lactose did not produce very much CO2 in comparison with the other sugar solutions used in this experiment. Glucose, although it did not give the highest rate of respiration, had the highest starting CO2 value and the highest final CO2 value.

 

Data table #1: Sugar Respiration, Group 4

 

Sugar type

Initial CO2

in ppm

Initial time

in seconds

 

Final CO2

in ppm

 

Final time

in seconds

Slope

DCO2 / DT

Glucose

4100

0

4680

230

2.52  ppm/second

Maltose

3680

0

4980

240

5.42 ppm/second

Sucrose

3390

0

4410

230

4.34 ppm/second

Lactose

2810

0

3340

300

1.77 ppm/second

Fructose

3310

0

4630

230

5.74 ppm/second

 

Graph

 

 

 

Purple=Lactose

Black=Glucose

Red=Sucrose

Blue=Fructose

Green=Maltose

 

CONCLUSION

We conducted this experiment to learn how much CO2 is released when yeast is combined with different types of sugar solutions.   Our hypothesis was that glucose would have the highest rate of respiration.  The data did not support this; fructose had the highest rate of respiration.  The rate of fructose was 5.74 ppm/second, whereas glucose was 2.52 ppm/second.  Glucose was the second lowest; the lowest was lactose with a rate of 1.77 ppm/second. From this data we can conclude that fructose is the highest respirator when combined with yeast. This is interesting because it proved our hypothesis incorrect due to the data cited above. Something that can also be concluded is that there must be a (or several) certain type(s) of enzyme(s) that are within the yeast, but they must be in varying amounts. This is proven by the fact that the slope of respiration for fructose (5.74) and maltose (5.42) are very close, and then the slopes drop quite a bit lower to lactose (1.77) and glucose (2.52).

Further recommendations for additional study would be to test the solutions multiple times, instead of just once. That would allow more accurate information for each solution, as well as more detailed conclusions. Also, if the temperature was easier to control, the results would be more accurate.

 

 

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The Affect of Different Sugars on the Rate of Respiration

By Kyle Sargis and Ben Sokol

 

INTRODUCTION:

Yeast is a single-celled organism that is can metabolize some foods, but not others.  Yeasts reproduce quickly, and sugar helps their rate of growth.  They feed on sugar from fruit, grain, and nectar, and also from molasses.  Yeast cells produce chemicals called enzymes, or ferments that break down their food.  Some yeast species break down sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.  This process is called fermentation and it plays an important part in making bread, beer, and wine.  Cell respiration is process that converts sugar into energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).   Anaerobic respiration allows cells to convert energy with the absence of oxygen.  During glycolysis, glucose converts into pyruvate, which releases 2 ATP of energy.  Aerobic respiration uses oxygen and glucose and converts it into CO2 and water, releasing 36 ATP.  Anaerobic uses glucose and no oxygen and converts it into either CO2 and alcohol or lactic acid.  The equation for aerobic respiration is, glucose C6H12O6 + O2 --energy released- > CO2 + H2O.  The equation for anaerobic respiration is, C6H12O6 energy released C2H5OH + CO2, or C6H12O6 energy released >C3H6O3.  The purpose of this experiment is to find out what sugar will yield the most amount of CO2.  The sugar with the highest amount of CO2 will have the highest rate of respiration.  The variables in this experiment are the different sugars that we are testing and the rate of respiration on the different sugars.  We predict that sucrose will yield the most amount of CO2 and will have the highest rate of respiration.

 

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

 

IV: Different Sugars

 

 

Glucose

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sucrose

 

 

 

 

Lactose

 

Fructose

 

Maltose

1

1

1

1

1

 

DV: Rate of Respiration

Constants:      Temperature of water (40C)

                   Same Chamber

                   Same Probe (CO2 Probe)

                   Same Percent Solution (5%)

                       

 

PROCEDURE

1.      Pour 2 ml of yeast and 2 ml of a sugar solution into test tube

2.      Set up calculator and probe for experiment

3.      Make sure water in beaker is 35-40 degrees

4.      Pour solution into chamber and place chamber in beaker

5.      Place probe into chamber

6.      Immediately after press start to record data

7.      Record data every 10 seconds for five minutes

8.      After recording, do the same steps but this time with a different sugar solution

 

DIAGRAM

 

 

RESULTS

         

Observations:  Sucrose produced the most CO2 besides glucose which was our control

Data table #1-Our Data

 

Sugar type

Initial PPM

Initial time

 

 

Final PPM

 

Final time

 

Slope

DP / DT

 Glucose

 

 

674

0

5080

50

88.12

Sucrose

 

 

1730

0

5010

160

20.5

 

Lactose

 

 

1150

0

1280

10

13

Fructose

 

 

1050

0

3050

300

6.667

Maltose

 

 

1400

0

3600

240

9.1667

 

Graph

     

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

Yeast is a single-celled organism that is can metabolize some foods, but not others.  Yeasts reproduce quickly, and sugar helps their rate of growth.  They feed on sugar from fruit, grain, and nectar, and also from molasses.  Yeast cells produce chemicals called enzymes, or ferments that break down their food.  Some yeast species break down sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.  This process is called fermentation and it plays an important part in making bread, beer, and wine.  Cell respiration is process that converts sugar into energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).   Anaerobic respiration allows cells to convert energy with the absence of oxygen.  During glycolysis, glucose converts into pyruvate, which releases 2 ATP of energy.  Aerobic respiration uses oxygen and glucose and converts it into CO2 and water, releasing 36 ATP.  Anaerobic uses glucose and no oxygen and converts it into either CO2 and alcohol or lactic acid.  The equation for aerobic respiration is, glucose C6H12O6 + O2 --energy released- > CO2 + H2O.  The equation for anaerobic respiration is, C6H12O6 energy released C2H5OH + CO2, or C6H12O6 energy released >C3H6O3.  The purpose of this experiment is to find out what sugar will yield the most amount of CO2.  The sugar with the highest amount of CO2 will have the highest rate of respiration.  The variables in this experiment are the different sugars that we are testing and the rate of respiration on the different sugars.  We predict that sucrose will yield the most amount of CO2 and will have the highest rate of respiration.  The purpose of this experiment was to find out what sugar will yield the most amount of CO2.  The sugar with the highest amount of CO2 will have the highest rate of respiration.  The sugar type that produced the most CO2 was sucrose producing 20.5 ppm per second because it had the highest rate of ppm per second besides glucose which was our control.  Our hypothesis was supported by our data, because sucrose yielded the most amount of CO2 and had the highest rate of respiration.    

 

 

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The Affect of Temperature on the Respiration

by Cam Baggen, Nick Foley, and Pat Mara

 

INTRODUCTION:

Our groups experiment is the affect that temperature has on respiration.  Yeast is a living thing that is needed for this experiment to work, and it acts like an enzyme in this experiment.  Cell respiration is when a reaction happens and a cell gets energy (ATP).  Cell respiration is necessary for a cell, because without it the cell would die.  The three types of cell respiration are aerobic, anaerobic, and photosynthesis.  Aerobic respiration converts chemical energy into living energy, it burns food to release to energy, and living things can only use one form of energy directly.  Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic respiration; the main difference is that anaerobic uses no oxygen when converting.  For example, an alcoholic beverage such as wine is created using anaerobic respiration.  An equation for aerobic respiration is: glucose + oxygen (using ATP energy) = carbon dioxide + water.  An example of an anaerobic respiration equation is: glucose (using ATP energy) = carbon dioxide + alcohol. Our hypothesis is that the higher the temperature of the experiment, the greater the rate of respiration will be. The purpose of this experiment is to discover what kind of affect temperature has on respiration in general.  The independent variable in this experiment is the temperature and the dependant variable is respiration. 

         

 

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

IV: Temperature

0-10 degrees

20-25 degrees

35-40 degrees

50-60 degrees

1 trial

1 trial     Control

1 trialf

1 trial

DV: Respiration

Constants:

        Amount of yeast

        Amount of glucose

        Graduated cylinder

        Temperature of room

        Placement in room

        Type of container that holds yeast and glucose

 

 

PROCEDURE

1.      Set up experiment as shown below

2.      Set up calculator using datamate

3.      Put respiration chamber in water

4.      Run experiment for 10, 30,50,100 degrees

5.      Get data from calculator

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESULTS

Observations: Record written observations in this space.

Data table # (number): group data

 

Temperature (celcius degrees)

Initial CO2 concentration (Ppm)

Initial time

 

 

Final CO2 concentration (Ppm)

 

Final time

(seconds)

Slope

DP / DT

 

5

 

1495.4

0

3157.38

900

1.85

23

 

 

1231.67

0

3304.01

900

2.3

40

 

 

1743

0

4003

900

2.51

60

 

 

3963

0

5063

50

22